Unit 8 Concept Map

8A - Extinction and Genetic Diversity
  • Extinction Events - 5 Mass Exctinction Events have occured int he past
  • Background Extinction Rate - 0.023 to 0.135 Extinctions per Million Species per Year
  • The 6th Mass Extinction - 1,000 to 10,000 times faster due to Human involvement
  • Genetic Diversity - The genetic variability of a species
  • Inbreeding Depression - Closely related individuals (genotypes) interbreeding
  • Endangered - A species that is danger of extinction or loss of genetic diversity
  • Categories of Endangerment - International Union for conservation of Nature (IUCN) Designations
    • Extinct - No known individuals exist today
    • Threatened - Species with a a high risk of being extinct in the future (Red List)
    • Near-threatened - Species that may become threatened
    • Least Concern - Species is widespread and abundant
8B - Protecting Habitat Loss
  • HIPCO - An acronym to remember ways that Habitat (Genetic Diversity) is lost
    • Habitat Loss - Removal of natural habitats due to human development
    • Invasive Species - Species that are detrimental to their new habitat
    • Pollution - Pesticides, heavy metals, acids and oil spills
    • Climate Change - Temperature & Precipitation changes impact diversity
    • Over-harvesting - Human consumption leading to extinction
  • Legislation
    • Lacey Act (1900) - Prevented transport of game animals across state lines
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES) - Preventing international trade of plants and animals
8C - Protecting Biodiversity
  • Conservation Legislation
    • Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) - Prohibits killing of ALL Marine Mammals in the United States
    • Endangered Species Act (1973) - Authorized the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to designate which species are threatened or endangered
    • Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) - International Treaty to protect biodiversity 
  • Edge Habitat - Where biospheres meet
  • Biosphere Reserves - Protecting areas to Preserve Biodiversity
    • Zonation System of Biosphere Reserves - How much human impact allowed on a reserve
      • Core Area - Monitoring only, as near to natural state as possible
      • Buffer Zone - Allows for tourism, recreation, education, and training
      • Transition Area - Towns and other human habitation areas
8D - Global Climate Change
  • Global Changes - Natural changes vs Anthropomorphic changes
  • The Greenhouse Effect - Retaining heat in our atmosphere
    • Greenhouse Warming Potential - Individual molecules energy absorption potential
      • Focus on Water
      • Focus on Carbon Dioxide
      • Focus on Methane
      • Focus on Nitrous Oxide
      • Focus on Chlorflurocarbons (CFCs)
  • Measuring the Seasonal Variations of CO2
    • Fluctuations in the last 400,000 years
    • Fluctuations since 1880
  • Climate Modelling - Using observations & math to predict the future
    • Positive Feedbacks - Action that amplifies effects or outcomes
    • Negative Feedbacks - Action that counteracts effects or outcomes
    • Limitations on Feedbacks - Most feedback mechanisms have limits
8E - How is our Environment Changing?
  • Polar Ice Caps - Global ice-cover is shrinking
  • Glaciers - Melting faster than they replenish
  • Permafrost - Warming and releasing methane
  • Sea Levels - Warming and adding water increasing levels
  • Heat Waves / Cold Spells - More extreme weather events
  • Precipitation Patterns / Storms - Shifting & intensity changing weather
  • Ocean Currents - Fresh water shifting ocean currents
8F - What influences Sustainability?
  • Sustainability - Living with long-term ecological balance
  • Market Economies - Supply, demand and equilibrium
  • Genuine Progress Indictator (GPI) - Takes the well-being of a nation rather than production
  • Kuznets Curve - Market forces responding to environmental degradation
  • Technology Transfer - Devloping nations adopting developed nations technology
    • Leapfrogging - New technologies making old technologies absolete
    • Microlending -  High per capita countries lending to low capita countries
8G How does Economics influence the Environment?
  • Environmental Economics - Cost and benefits of policy and regulation
    • Market Failure
  • Natural Capital - 
  • Human Capital
  • Manufactured Capital
  • Sustainable Economic Systems
    • Cradle-to-Cradle
World Views & Organizations
  • Worldviews
    • Anthropocentric
      • Stewardship
    • Biocentric
    • Ecocentric
  • World Agencies
    • United Nations (UN)
    • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
    • World Bank
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • United States Agencies
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • Department of Energy (DOE)
Achieving Sustainability
  • Human Development Index (HDI)
  • Human Poverty Index (HPI)
  • Encouraging Sustainability
    • Comand-and-Control Approach
    • Incentive-based Approach
    • Green Tax
    • Triple Bottom Line